Solana supports writing on-chain programs using the C and C++ programming languages.
C projects are laid out as follows:
makefile should contain the following:
The bpf-sdk may not be in the exact place specified above but if you setup your environment per How to Build then it should be.
Take a look at helloworld for an example of a C program.
First setup the environment:
Then build using make:
To add tests, create a new file next to your source file named
test_<program name>.c and populate it with criterion test cases. For an example see the
or the Criterion docs for
information on how to write a test case.
Programs export a known entrypoint symbol which the Solana runtime looks up and calls when invoking a program. Solana supports multiple versions of the BPF loader and the entrypoints may vary between them. Programs must be written for and deployed to the same loader. For more details see the overview.
They both have the same raw entrypoint definition, the following is the raw symbol that the runtime looks up and calls:
This entrypoint takes a generic byte array which contains the serialized program parameters (program id, accounts, instruction data, etc...). To deserialize the parameters each loader contains its own helper function.
Refer to helloworld's use of the entrypoint as an example of how things fit together.
Each loader provides a helper function that deserializes the program's input parameters into C types:
Some programs may want to perform deserialization themselves, and they can by providing their own implementation of the raw entrypoint. Take note that the provided deserialization functions retain references back to the serialized byte array for variables that the program is allowed to modify (lamports, account data). The reason for this is that upon return the loader will read those modifications so they may be committed. If a program implements their own deserialization function they need to ensure that any modifications the program wishes to commit must be written back into the input byte array.
Details on how the loader serializes the program inputs can be found in the Input Parameter Serialization docs.
The loader's deserialization helper function populates the SolParameters structure:
'ka' is an ordered array of the accounts referenced by the instruction and represented as a SolAccountInfo structures. An account's place in the array signifies its meaning, for example, when transferring lamports an instruction may define the first account as the source and the second as the destination.
The members of the
SolAccountInfo structure are read-only except for
data. Both may be modified by the program in accordance with
the runtime enforcement
policy. When an instruction
reference the same account multiple times there may be duplicate
SolAccountInfo entries in the array but they both point back to the original
input byte array. A program should handle these cases delicately to avoid
overlapping read/writes to the same buffer. If a program implements their own
deserialization function care should be taken to handle duplicate accounts
data is the general purpose byte array from the instruction's instruction
program_id is the public key of the currently executing program.
C programs can allocate memory via the system call
or implement their own heap on top of the 32KB heap region starting at virtual
address x300000000. The heap region is also used by
calloc so if a program
implements their own heap it should not also call
The runtime provides two system calls that take data and log it to the program logs.
The debugging section has more information about working with program logs.
Use the system call
to log a message containing the remaining number of compute units the program
may consume before execution is halted
See compute budget for more information.
The BPF shared object internals can be dumped to a text file to gain more insight into a program's composition and what it may be doing at runtime. The dump will contain both the ELF information as well as a list of all the symbols and the instructions that implement them. Some of the BPF loader's error log messages will reference specific instruction numbers where the error occurred. These references can be looked up in the ELF dump to identify the offending instruction and its context.
To create a dump file:
The Solana Program Library github repo contains a collection of C examples