Sysvar Cluster Data

Solana exposes a variety of cluster state data to programs via sysvar accounts. These accounts are populated at known addresses published along with the account layouts in the solana-program crate, and outlined below.

To include sysvar data in program operations, pass the sysvar account address in the list of accounts in a transaction. The account can be read in your instruction processor like any other account. Access to sysvars accounts ßis always readonly.

Clock

The Clock sysvar contains data on cluster time, including the current slot, epoch, and estimated wall-clock Unix timestamp. It is updated every slot.

  • Address: SysvarC1ock11111111111111111111111111111111

  • Layout: Clock

  • Fields:

    • slot: the current slot
    • epoch_start_timestamp: the Unix timestamp of the first slot in this epoch. In the first slot of an epoch, this timestamp is identical to the unix_timestamp (below).
    • epoch: the current epoch
    • leader_schedule_epoch: the most recent epoch for which the leader schedule has already been generated
    • unix_timestamp: the Unix timestamp of this slot.

    Each slot has an estimated duration based on Proof of History. But in reality, slots may elapse faster and slower than this estimate. As a result, the Unix timestamp of a slot is generated based on oracle input from voting validators. This timestamp is calculated as the stake-weighted median of timestamp estimates provided by votes, bounded by the expected time elapsed since the start of the epoch.

    More explicitly: for each slot, the most recent vote timestamp provided by each validator is used to generate a timestamp estimate for the current slot (the elapsed slots since the vote timestamp are assumed to be Bank::ns_per_slot). Each timestamp estimate is associated with the stake delegated to that vote account to create a distribution of timestamps by stake. The median timestamp is used as the unix_timestamp, unless the elapsed time since the epoch_start_timestamp has deviated from the expected elapsed time by more than 25%.

EpochSchedule

The EpochSchedule sysvar contains epoch scheduling constants that are set in genesis, and enables calculating the number of slots in a given epoch, the epoch for a given slot, etc. (Note: the epoch schedule is distinct from the leader schedule)

  • Address: SysvarEpochSchedu1e111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: EpochSchedule

Fees

The Fees sysvar contains the fee calculator for the current slot. It is updated every slot, based on the fee-rate governor.

  • Address: SysvarFees111111111111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: Fees

Instructions

The Instructions sysvar contains the serialized instructions in a Message while that Message is being processed. This allows program instructions to reference other instructions in the same transaction. Read more information on instruction introspection.

  • Address: Sysvar1nstructions1111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: Instructions

RecentBlockhashes

The RecentBlockhashes sysvar contains the active recent blockhashes as well as their associated fee calculators. It is updated every slot.

Rent

The Rent sysvar contains the rental rate. Currently, the rate is static and set in genesis. The Rent burn percentage is modified by manual feature activation.

  • Address: SysvarRent111111111111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: Rent

SlotHashes

The SlotHashes sysvar contains the most recent hashes of the slot's parent banks. It is updated every slot.

  • Address: SysvarS1otHashes111111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: SlotHashes

SlotHistory

The SlotHistory sysvar contains a bitvector of slots present over the last epoch. It is updated every slot.

  • Address: SysvarS1otHistory11111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: SlotHistory

StakeHistory

The StakeHistory sysvar contains the history of cluster-wide stake activations and de-activations per epoch. It is updated at the start of every epoch.

  • Address: SysvarStakeHistory1111111111111111111111111
  • Layout: StakeHistory