The following terms are used throughout this book.
A front-end application that interacts with a Solana cluster.
Smallest encrypted chunk of ledger, an encrypted ledger segment would be made of many CBC blocks.
ledger_segment_size / cbc_block_size to be exact.
Some number of epochs after stake has been deactivated while it progressively becomes available for withdrawal. During this period, the stake is considered to be "deactivating". More info about: warmup and cooldown
See vote credit.
A multicast network used to efficiently validate entries and gain consensus.
An off-chain service that acts as a custodian for a user's private key. It typically serves to validate and sign transactions.
The entry being generated after a duration of time
The specified transactions are those included in the entry
The entry's position with respect to other entries in ledger
See Proof of History.
A proof which has the same format as a storage proof, but the sha state is actually from hashing a known ledger value which the storage client can reveal and is also easily verifiable by the network on-chain.
The fee account in the transaction is the account pays for the cost of including the transaction in the ledger. This is the first account in the transaction. This account must be declared as Read-Write (writable) in the transaction since paying for the transaction reduces the account balance.
When nodes representing 2/3rd of the stake have a common root.
A ledger derived from common entries but then diverged.
The first block in the chain.
A digital fingerprint of a sequence of bytes.
An increase in token supply over time used to fund rewards for validation and replication and to fund continued development of Solana.
Portion of the ledger which is downloaded by the archiver where storage proof data is derived.
A hash of the validator's state at a given tick height. It comprises a validator's affirmation that a block it has received has been verified, as well as a promise not to vote for a conflicting block (i.e. fork) for a specific amount of time, the lockout period.
A program with the ability to interpret the binary encoding of other on-chain programs.
A computer participating in a cluster.
See Proof of History.
A weighted credit in a rewards regime. In the validator rewards regime, the number of points owed to a stake during redemption is the product of the vote credits earned and the number of lamports staked.
The private key of a keypair.
The code that interprets instructions.
A stack of proofs, each which proves that some data existed before the proof was created and that a precise duration of time passed before the previous proof. Like a VDF, a Proof of History can be verified in less time than it took to produce.
The public key of a keypair.
Storage mining client, stores some part of the ledger enumerated in blocks and submits storage proofs to the chain. Not a validator.
A block or slot that has reached maximum lockout on a validator. The root is the highest block that is an ancestor of all active forks on a validator. All ancestor blocks of a root are also transitively a root. Blocks that are not an ancestor and not a descendant of the root are excluded from consideration for consensus and can be discarded.
A set of constraints that once satisfied, signal to a program that some predefined account updates are permitted.
A set of sha hash state which is constructed by sampling the encrypted version of the stored ledger segment at certain offsets.
A transaction from an archiver that verifiably proves that a validator confirmed a fake proof.
A transaction from a validator which is after the timeout period given from the storage proof confirmation and which no successful challenges have been observed which rewards the parties of the storage proofs and confirmations.
A transaction by a validator which indicates the set of real and fake proofs submitted by a storage miner. The transaction would contain a list of proof hash values and a bit which says if this hash is valid or fake.
The number of keys and samples that a validator can verify each storage epoch.
A ledger entry that estimates wallclock duration.
A scarce, fungible member of a set of tokens.
Transactions per second.
A set of transactions that may be executed in parallel.
A function that takes a fixed amount of time to execute that produces a proof that it ran, which can then be verified in less time than it took to produce.
See ledger vote.
A reward tally for validators. A vote credit is awarded to a validator in its vote account when the validator reaches a root.
Some number of epochs after stake has been delegated while it progressively becomes effective. During this period, the stake is considered to be "activating". More info about: warmup and cooldown